photo Thales TSW 2300 High quality design for best reliability

Transmitter benefits
- Low energy consumption
- Very low distortion
- Full remote-control facilities

TSM benefits
- Digital signal processing, no aging
- Outstanding signal-to-noise ratio
- Redundancy reduces downtime
- Equal thermal loading of all modules



Thales transmitters offer maximum adaptability to the wishes and requirements of our customers for today and tomorrow. They embody a string of common features made for unrivalled performance and user convenience.

Flexibility in service is further increased by fully digital Signal processing options such as high-power single-sideband (SSB) service, dynamic carrier control (DCC) operation, etc.

The most important structural components of a transmitter equipped with a solid-state modulator are the radio-frequency stages, modulator, transmitter control, power supply and cooling.

Radio-frequency stages

The TSW 2300 is fitted with one small driver tube and a final-stage tube, while the TSM modulator is designed with semiconductors throughout.

All preliminary stages are fitted with semiconductors and are of wide-band design. A high-stability programmable synthesizer serves as a radio-frequency source.

A coupling capacitor is cylindrically arranged around the final-stage tube. This creates a homogenous current distribution in the tube and makes the design as compact as possible.

Thales's customer-specific transmitter equipment

TSM - Thales Solid-State Modulator

The TSW 2300 is equipped with a highly efficient Solid-State Modulator called TSM - Thales Solid-State Modulator. Exclusive use of semiconductors combined with the prevention of high switching transients provide the energy required by the transmitter with a high efficiency; but without the generation of any undesired X-rays.

The 48 power modules are designed as 24 dual modules. Each one of the 48 power modules represents an individual voltage source which can be switched on or off independently from each other.

All units of the TSM control system are supervised continuously by the BITE - Built-In Testing Equipment.

The design oftheTSM provides for either air or water cooling depending on the requirements specified.

Transmitter control system

The transmitter control system represents the link between the operator and the various components of the transmitter. It serves to coordinate and supervise all switching procedures, protects the equipment and ensures the simplicity of transmitter operation. The sophisticated operating keyboard, together with a color monitor, enables operation of the transmitter in a simple and straightforward manner.

The monitor screen provides a clear realtime overview of all operating data. Measurands may be displayed as graphics or as digital values in realtime mode. A help function is provided which can be called up at any time in order to receive explanations to individual commands.

The transmitter control system is based on microprocessors which makes it easy to control the transmitter from a remote location, by way of a fiber-optic link. It can even be integrated into a station control system. The system is designed in a manner suited for all Thales broadcast transmitters.

Automatic tuning system

The automatic tuning system has been designed to the latest developments in control technology. Consequent use of microprocessor technology has resulted in a flexible and reliable tuning system.

Standard tuning has a capacity of 230 preset values available for distribution between 3.2 and 26.1 MHz. Operators may store 100 additional operational states as operator presets.

The transmitters are tuneable to any carrier frequency within the 11 inter- national short-wave bands in steps of 100 or 10 Hz (depending on the synthesizer used).


Thales broadcast transmitters are world leaders in overall efficiency. Their performance, reliability and easy maintenance are universally recognized. A quality assurance system embraces every part of our activities from the gathering of orders to final commissioning, and beyond to after-sales service. The system has been granted the coveted ISO 9001 quality certificate.


Thales offers a wide range of products and services:

Type of transmission A3E AM (incl. DCC)
According to the ITU Radio Regulations, Geneva 1990, Article 4.
Frequency range 5.95 - 26.1 MHz (standard)
3.9 - 26.1 MHz (optional)
Broadcasting bands according to the ITU Radio Regulations, Geneva 1990.
Rated carrier output power 300 kW into a matched 300 Ohms balanced load or a 50 Ohms unbalanced load.
Frequency stability Determined by oscillator or synthesizer used, which is normally equal to or better than CCIR requirements.
Radio frequency input level 1 Vrms into 50 Ohms
Radio frequency output impedance 50 Ohms unbalanced (standard)
300 Ohms balanced (optional)
Maximum permissible VSWR 2.0 at 50 Ohms unbalanced
1.7 at 300 Ohms balanced
Radio-frequency harmonics and spurious radiation According to the ITU Radio Regulations, Geneva 1990, appendix 8, column B, measured at the transmitter output with a correctly matched load.
Carrier-voltage shift less than 5% for instantaneous application or removal of 95% sine wave modulation at 1 kHz, with constant mains voltage.
Type of modulation High-level anode modulation
Audio-frequency input level 0 dBm to 20 dBm into 600 Ohms balanced, for 100% modulation.
Audio-frequency response ±1 dB 50 Hz - 7'500 Hz referred to 70% modulation at 1'000 Hz
Audio-frequency distortion Less than 3.5% 50 Hz - 7'500 Hz related to AF input signal at the TSM amplifier for m = 0.3 - 0.9
Less than 1.0% with an adaptive non-linear compensator (optional)
Modulation capability Program material

Tone tests
50 Hz - 7'500 Hz continuous
(with peaks up to 100% related to the input)
50 Hz - 7'500 Hz m = 1 during 10'/h, m = 0.75 continuous
1'000 Hz 1 h continuous
Related to AF input signal at the TSM amplifier (sine wave, DSB).
Hum and noise level Less than -60 dB RMS, unweighted according to CCIR Rec. 468-3 1990, Annex II. Referred to 100% modulation at 1'000 Hz sine wave
Mains supply 50 or 60 Hz Low voltage 400 V, 3-phase and neutral
For tolerances up to ±10% an optional 400 V voltage regulator is available for the auxiliary supplies.
High voltage 3 - 24 kV, 3-phase
Permissible voltage tolerance ±5%
Permissible frequency tolerance ±2 Hz
Maximum theoretical power consumption Low voltage 46 kVA
High voltage 1'007 kVA
Total 1'053 kVA
For 100% sinusoidal modulation (actual power consumption is lower during program operation).
Power factor for equipment More than 0.95 with 100% modulation at 1'000 Hz
Overall efficiency Min. guaranteed more than 75%
Typically more than 77%
With standard cooling at 0 - 100% modulation
Frequency change time 30 seconds max.
Ambient temperature 1°C - 45°C
Maximum humidity 95%
Dimensions Transmitter

length 4.80 m
width 1.60 m
height 2.10 m
length 3.25 m
width 1.30 m
height 2.00 m
Specifications may change without notice

RF stages AF stages and modulator
Number Type Number Type
1 TH558

1 CTK 12-1


ITU Country
ITU Country